New gonostyli try emphasized inside the yellow, and certainly will become explicitly found in newly mated queens

Female genitalia out-of Meters. fasciculata and you will actions to own mating connect coupling. (A) Virgin people genitalia in the frontal evaluate. (B) Male genitalia of pre-copula male, approaching the female genitalia. (C–E) Vaginal medicine, metasomal sterna S-VIII and you will S-IX. (F) Male genitalia performing the coupling of your connect: ventral look at genital supplement and you can metasomal sternum S-IX projecting out of the human body of one’s men by the a great telescopic movement. (G) Male genital supplement isolated out-of male’s system, that have cock regulators triggered, gonostyli facing the opposite status regarding the initial. (H) Metasomal sterna S-VIII and S-IX, where sternum S-IX assumes on their modern updates from inside the male’s gut. (I) Mating connect in detail, exhibiting the horizontal compression out-of gonocoxites. (J) The new genital chamber from good blocked girls: the latest membranous region who has the newest mating plug connected.

In the non-Melipona species (F

longipes, S. aff. Postica, and you will P. minima), we observed sturdy dick regulators having mediator curvature and a diminished spatha ( Figure 1)paring the overall morphology out of dick valves and you may spatha out of M. fasciculata to another learnt types, we unearthed that each other M. flavolineata and you will Meters. seminigra keeps thin manhood regulators with lower curvature. not, Yards. seminigra provides shorter valves than just Yards. flavolineata, and a well-known spatha when comparing to additional Melipona ( Contour step one).

Description off hypothesized plugging measures

The last updates from mating plugs in to the mated women matched brand new position of one’s male’s instinct while in the copulation because of “J” path and position lower than female’s instinct ( Profile 4C). In every physogastric queens of Yards. fasciculata, i seen the brand new mating connect linked to the membranous genital pouches from the knob valves, for the spatha body built toward the female ventral portion, placed under brand new gonopore ( Contour 3J). We suggest that new mating connect mechanism is actually brought about in the event that male vaginal medicine is actually irreversibly protruded out of male’s looks, which results in modified ranking of the gonostyli, dick valves, and gonocoxites.

The latest mating collection of M. fasciculata, according to videos list away from mating out of a related varieties. From top to bottom: (A) men in-flight, trying to status alone along the women; (B) arranged men, proving pairs of feet fitting along the female’s human body; (C) male improving the gut of female; (D) male leaving the feminine immediately after profitable mating, that is, the fresh mating connect accessory. In most parts, men wings was portrayed so you can portray its path throughout the mating, according to Secondary Clips S1 .

The fresh mating group of M. fasciculata, according to videos list out-of mating out of an associated species. All the way through: (A) men in-flight, looking to position by itself along side lady; (B) positioned male, proving sets off ft fitting along side female’s system; (C) men increasing the abdomen of the girls; (D) male leaving the female shortly after successful mating, that’s, the brand new mating connect accessory. In most parts, male wings is represented so you’re able to show the course while in the mating, according to Additional Films S1 .

In line with the comparison anywhere between sleeping condition away from genital tablets and you can caused county from mating plugs, their practical morphology, plus in video records towards mating behavior regarding a closely associated variety ( Secondary Videos S1 ), i recommend that creating regarding mating plug occurs in 5 hypothetical steps ( Data step 3 and you may 4):

Once immobilizing the female human body, a man inserts their metasomal sternum S-VIII within the ladies tergum T-VI, training it ( Contour 4C).

While the lady genital chamber try opened ( Shape 3A), a man gonostyli meets the fresh new female’s genital region. Immediately following positioning the newest sternum S-VIII, the male metasomal sternum S-IX protrudes from the male’s looks toward new female’s vaginal how to find a hookup Brantford chamber along with the vaginal medicine, by a good telescopic movement ( Contour 3F). The insertion away from men vaginal medicine into the lady vaginal chamber isn’t followed by the latest gonostyli, and this flow backwards into the procedure, left outside of the girls genital chamber ( Shape 3G).